2-4

2-4. Pregnancy outcomes

2-4-1. Antenatal visits

2-4-2. Smoking during pregnancy

2-4-3. Gestational diabetes

2-4-4. Overweight and obesity in pregnancy

Sources

 

2-4-1. Antenatal visits

  • More than three quarters (78.2%) of women who gave birth in South Australia in 2015 had their first antenatal visit within the first 14 weeks of pregnancy.1
  • The rate for Aboriginal women is significantly lower, at just over half (56.5%).1
  • The overall trend for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women has been trending up since 2007 when this time series began. 
Antenatal visit within first 14 weeks of pregnancy, 2015
Aboriginal status %
Aboriginal 56.5%
Non-Aboriginal 79.0%
South Australia 78.2%
Australia n.a.

2-4-1 SA

Data source: SA Health 2017a

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2-4-2. Smoking during pregnancy

  • Data for 2015 shows that one in eight (12.5%) women who gave birth in South Australia reported being smokers at their first antenatal visit.2
  • To enable interstate comparison, this rate includes women who reported smoking during pregnancy, but had quit before their first antenatal visit.2
  • The proportion of women smoking at the first antenatal visit (including quitters) continues to decline since 2006 when this time series (with Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal comparisons) began. In 2006 the state rate was 22.3%.2
  • The corresponding rate for Aboriginal women also continues to decline, down from 60.8% in 2006 to 48.4% in 2015.
  • Data for 2015 shows a drop in reported smoking rates between the first antenatal visit and second half of pregnancy.2
  • Less than one in ten (8.5%) women who gave birth in South Australia report being smokers in the second half of their pregnancy, 4.1 percentage points lower than the 14.5% who reported smoking at (or before) their first antenatal visit.2
  • However, South Australia ranks third-highest compared to the other states and territories for proportion of women who gave birth who reported being smokers during their pregnancy at their first antenatal visit.3
  • Data for 2016 shows that the state rate of 12.0% is above the national average of 9.9%.3

 

Smoking rate at first antenatal visit, 2015
Aboriginal status %
Aboriginal 48.4%
Non-Aboriginal 11.2%
South Australia 12.5%
Australia (2016) 9.9%

2-4-2a

Data source: SA Health 2017b

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Smoking rate in second half of pregnancy, 2015
Aboriginal status %
Aboriginal 39.1%
Non-Aboriginal 7.4%
South Australia 8.5%
Australia n.a.

2-4-2b

Data source: SA Health 2017b

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Smoking rate at first antenatal visit, 2016
State/Territory %
Australian Capital Territory 5.8%
New South Wales 8.4%
Western Australia 9.1%
Victoria 9.3%
Queensland 12.0%
South Australia 12.0%
Tasmania 14.2%
Northern Territory 21.1%
Australia 9.9%

2-4-2 AU

Data source: AIHW 2018a

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2-4-3. Gestational diabetes

  • There has been a more than doubling in the prevalence of gestational diabetes among women who give birth in South Australia over the last decade of collected data.
  • In 2005, 4.5% of women who gave birth in South Australia experienced gestational diabetes as an obstetric complication.4
  • By 2015, the prevalence in this state had more than doubled to 10.4%.4

 

Gestational diabetes, 2015
Region % of women
who gave birth
Metro. Adelaide n.a.
Country SA n.a.
South Australia 10.4%
Australia n.a.

2-4-3 SA

Data Source: SA Health 2017c

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2-4-4. Overweight and obesity in pregnancy

  • Body mass index or BMI is a measure of body fat based on the ratio of weight and height (bodyweight in kilograms divided by height in metres squared).
  • The normal range of BMI for non-pregnant women is 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2.
  • BMI increases are expected in pregnancy. However, a BMI in the range 25.0 to 29.9 at the first antenatal consultation is defined as overweight, while a BMI of 30.0 or more is defined as obesity in pregnancy.
  • In 2016, over a quarter (28.0%) of women in South Australia who gave birth were recorded as being overweight during their pregnancy, above the national average of 25.5%.5
  • At the same time, a slightly lower proportion (24.4%) were recorded as being obese although again this was above the national average of 19.5%.5
  • Over the last six years for which time series data is available, the trend in overweight and obesity in pregnancy has increased slightly in South Australia but fallen nationally.
  • Of the states and territories, South Australia is ranked highest for overweight and second highest for obesity in pregnancy. However, readers should note that figures may not be directly comparable between jurisdictions due to differences in how and when data was collected.

 

Overweight in pregnancy, 2016
Region %
Metropolitan Adelaide n.a.
Country SA n.a.
South Australia 28.0%
Australia 25.5%

2-4-4 SA overweight

Data source: AIHW 2018b

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Obesity in pregnancy, 2016
Region %
Metropolitan Adelaide n.a.
Country SA n.a.
South Australia 24.4%
Australia 19.5%

2-4-4 SA obese

Data source: AIHW 2018b

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Overweight in pregnancy, 2016
State/Territory %
Queensland 23.4%
New South Wales 24.3%
Tasmania 24.8%
Australian Capital Territory 24.9%
Northern Territory 25.3%
Victoria 26.8%
Western Australia 28.0%
South Australia 28.0%
Australia 25.5%

2-4-4 AU overweight

N.B. figures may not be directly comparable between jurisdictions due to differences in how and when data was collected.

Data source: AIHW 2018b


Obesity in pregnancy, 2016
State/Territory %
New South Wales 17.8%
Victoria 19.5%
Australian Capital Territory 19.6%
Queensland 19.8%
Western Australia 20.1%
Northern Territory 21.3%
South Australia 24.4%
Tasmania 25.6%
Australia 19.5%

2-4-4 AU obese

N.B. figures may not be directly comparable between jurisdictions due to differences in how and when data was collected.

Data source: AIHW 2018b


Sources

  1. Based on Pregnancy Outcome Unit, SA Health (SA Health 2017a), Government of South Australia 2015, 'Table 9a: Gestation at first antenatal visit, women who gave birth, by race, South Australia, 2015', Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015, Scheil W, Jolly K, Scott J, Catcheside B, Sage L, Kennare R, viewed August 2018.
  2. Based on Pregnancy Outcome Unit, SA Health (SA Health 2017b), Government of South Australia 2015, 'Table 20: Tobacco smoking status at first antenatal visit, non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015' and 'Table 21: Average number of tobacco cigarettes smoked per day in the second half of pregnancy,
    non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015', Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015, Scheil W, Jolly K, Scott J, Catcheside B, Sage L, Kennare R, viewed August 2018.
  3. Based on Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW 2018a) National Perinatal Data Collection, 'Table 14a: Trends for smoking anytime in pregnancy by selected maternal characteristics, 2005 to 2016', Antenatal period module, Perinatal data portal, accessed 8 August 2018.
  4. Based on Pregnancy Outcome Unit, SA Health (SA Health 2017c), Government of South Australia 2015, 'Table 23: Frequency of some obstetric complications, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2015', Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2015, Scheil W, Jolly K, Scott J, Catcheside B, Sage L, Kennare R, viewed August 2018.
  5. Based on Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW 2018b), 'Table 12: Body mass index (BMI) by selected characteristics of women who gave birth, 2016', Antenatal period module, Perinatal data portal, accessed 8 August 2018.