2-4

2-4. Pregnancy outcomes

2-4-1. Antenatal visits

2-4-2. Smoking during pregnancy

2-4-3. Gestational diabetes

2-4-4. Overweight and obesity in pregnancy

Sources

 

2-4-1. Antenatal visits

  • The majority (83.0%) of women who gave birth in South Australia in 2016 had their first antenatal visit within the first 14 weeks of pregnancy.1
  • The rate for Aboriginal women is lower at 61.3%.1
  • The overall trend for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women has been trending up since 2007 when this time series began. 
Antenatal visit within first 14 weeks of pregnancy, 2016
Aboriginal status %
Aboriginal 61.3%
Non-Aboriginal 83.9%
South Australia 83.0%
Australia n.a.

2 4 1 2019 10 01

Data source: SA Health 2018a

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2-4-2. Smoking during pregnancy

  • Data for 2016 shows that one in eight (12.0%) women who gave birth in South Australia reported being smokers at their first antenatal visit.2
  • To enable interstate comparison, this rate includes women who reported smoking during pregnancy, but had quit before their first antenatal visit.2
  • The proportion of women smoking at the first antenatal visit (including quitters) continues to decline since 2006 when this time series (with Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal comparisons) began. In 2006 the state rate was 22.3%.2
  • The corresponding rate for Aboriginal women also continues to decline, down from 60.8% in 2006 to 50.0% in 2016.
  • Data for 2016 shows a drop in reported smoking rates between the first antenatal visit and second half of pregnancy.2
  • Less than one in ten (8.0%) women who gave birth in South Australia report being smokers in the second half of their pregnancy, 4.0 percentage points lower than the 12.0% who reported smoking at (or before) their first antenatal visit.2
  • However, South Australia ranks forth-highest compared to the other states and territories for proportion of women who gave birth who reported being smokers during their pregnancy at their first antenatal visit.3
  • Data for 2017 shows that the state rate of 11.3% is above the national average of 9.9%.3

 

Smoking rate at first antenatal visit, 2016
Aboriginal status %
Aboriginal 50.0%
Non-Aboriginal 10.5%
South Australia 12.0%
Australia (2017) 9.9%

2 4 2 Visit1 2019 10 01

Data source: SA Health 2018b

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Smoking rate in second half of pregnancy, 2016
Aboriginal status %
Aboriginal 39.8%
Non-Aboriginal 6.8%
South Australia 8.0%
Australia n.a.

2 4 2 Visit2 2019 10 01

Data source: SA Health 2018b

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Smoking rate at first antenatal visit, 2017
State/Territory %
Australian Capital Territory 6.2%
New South Wales 8.9%
Western Australia 8.9%
Victoria 9.0%
South Australia 11.3%
Queensland 11.9%
Tasmania 14.5%
Northern Territory 20.6%
Australia 9.9%

2 4 2 anytime 2019 10 01

Data source: AIHW 2018a

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2-4-3. Gestational diabetes

  • There has been a more than tripling in the prevalence of gestational diabetes among women who give birth in South Australia over the last decade of collected data.
  • In 2006, 4.5% of women who gave birth in South Australia experienced gestational diabetes as an obstetric complication.4
  • In 2016 the prevalence was 14.0%.4

 

Gestational diabetes, 2016
Region % of women
who gave birth
Metro. Adelaide n.a.
Country SA n.a.
South Australia 14.0%
Australia n.a.

2 4 3 sa 2019 10 01

Data Source: SA Health 2018c

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2-4-4. Overweight and obesity in pregnancy

  • Body mass index or BMI is a measure of body fat based on the ratio of weight and height (bodyweight in kilograms divided by height in metres squared).
  • The normal range of BMI for non-pregnant women is 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2.
  • BMI increases are expected in pregnancy. However, a BMI in the range 25.0 to 29.9 at the first antenatal consultation is defined as overweight, while a BMI of 30.0 or more is defined as obesity in pregnancy.
  • In 2017, over a quarter (27.7%) of women in South Australia who gave birth were recorded as being overweight during their pregnancy, above the national average of 26.2%.5
  • At the same time, a slightly lower proportion (24.9%) were recorded as being obese although again this was above the national average of 21.0%.5
  • Over the last six years for which time series data is available, the trend in overweight and obesity in pregnancy has increased slightly in South Australia but fallen nationally.
  • Of the states and territories, South Australia is ranked second highest for overweight and obesity in pregnancy. However, readers should note that figures may not be directly comparable between jurisdictions due to differences in how and when data was collected.

 

Overweight in pregnancy, 2017
Region %
Metropolitan Adelaide n.a.
Country SA n.a.
South Australia 27.7%
Australia 26.2%

2 4 4 ow sa 2019 10 09

Data source: AIHW 2018b

_

Obesity in pregnancy, 2017
Region %
Metropolitan Adelaide n.a.
Country SA n.a.
South Australia 24.9%
Australia 21.0%

2 4 4 ob sa 2019 10 09

Data source: AIHW 2018b

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Overweight in pregnancy, 2017
State/Territory %
Queensland 23.4%
Tasmania 26.7%
Australian Capital Territory 26.7%
Victoria 26.9%
South Australia 27.7%
Western Australia 28.2%
New South Wales n.a.
Northern Territory n.a.
Total 26.2%

New South Wales and Northern Territory excluded in source dataset.

N.B. figures may not be directly comparable between jurisdictions due to differences in how and when data was collected.

Data source: AIHW 2018b


Obesity in pregnancy, 2017
State/Territory %
Victoria 20.1%
Western Australia 20.3%
Australian Capital Territory 20.5%
Queensland 20.8%
South Australia 24.9%
Tasmania 26.1%
New South Wales n.a.
Northern Territory n.a.
Total 21.0%

New South Wales and Northern Territory excluded in source dataset.

N.B. figures may not be directly comparable between jurisdictions due to differences in how and when data was collected.

Data source: AIHW 2018b


Sources

  1. Based on Pregnancy Outcome Unit, SA Health (SA Health 2018a), Government of South Australia 2016, 'Table 15a: Gestation at first antenatal visit, women who gave birth, by race, South Australia, 2016', Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2016, Pregnancy Outcome Unit, Prevention and Population Health Branch, SA Health, Government of South Australia 2018, viewed 30 September 2019.
  2. Based on Pregnancy Outcome Unit, SA Health (SA Health 2018b), Government of South Australia 2016, 'Table 10: Tobacco smoking status at first antenatal visit, non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal women who gave birth, South Australia, 2016' and 'Table 11: Average number of tobacco cigarettes smoked per day in the second half of pregnancy,
    non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal women who gave birth, South Australia, 2016', Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2016, Pregnancy Outcome Unit, Prevention and Population Health Branch, SA Health, Government of South Australia 2018, viewed 30 September 2019.
  3. Based on Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW 2019a) National Perinatal Data Collection, 'Table 14a: Trends for smoking anytime in pregnancy by selected maternal characteristics, 2007 to 2016', Antenatal period module, Perinatal data portal, accessed 30 September 2019.
  4. Based on Pregnancy Outcome Unit, SA Health (SA Health 2018c), Government of South Australia 2016, 'Table 18: Frequency of some obstetric complications, women who gave birth, South Australia, 2016',Pregnancy Outcome in South Australia 2016, Pregnancy Outcome Unit, Prevention and Population Health Branch, SA Health, Government of South Australia 2018, viewed 30 September 2019.
  5. Based on Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW 2019b), 'Table 2.17: Body mass index (BMI) by selected characteristics of women who gave birth, 2016', Antenatal period module, Perinatal data portal, accessed 30 September 2019.